Interview with Tom Richards: Mini Oramics Machine.


In our recent module, Industry Research Project we had to organise interview with a sound practitioner or a artist in the Sound Arts industry. I was lucky enough to get a interview with Sound Arts and PhD Goldsmiths Student Tom Richards. For his Phd project which finished last year, Richards redesigned British sound pioneer Daphne Oram (1925-2003) who is the inventor of the ‘Oramics Machine’  plans, which was a compressed and more portable Oramics Machine named ‘Mini Oramics.’

I spoke to him in his London studio to discuss his PhD on Daphne Oram life and work. Also to learn about the process of building the amazing Mini Oramics machine from scratch, technical process and post build process.

As a PhD Student at Goldsmith University, Tom Richards re-invented the late electronic and sound pioneer Daphne Oram’s unfinished design of the Mini Oramics.Tom Richards research and re-invention project into the original Oramics Machine which was invented in the early 60’s by Oram, is still a successful phenomenon.


Interviewer: Esther Gayle 

Sound Artist: Tom Richards

Interview Date: Monday 13th May 2019

Question 1. 

Esther: You were working on your PhD at Goldsmith’s University, researching into Oram, Daphne legacy. What drew you attention to this unadorned, but captivating project-The Mini Oramics? 

Tom: My Phd was meant to be a practice lead project, to make a physical, artistisc piece. I  received a PhD studentship funding by Science Museum, supervised and designed by Gold Smiths Research leader. Mick Greirson and Dr Tim Boom, who had already had a partnership while working on Oram, Daphne archive collection in the Science Museum.

I came across the almost complete plan of Oram’s Mini Oramics design, and I understood the Mini Oramics synth schematics. I decided I wanted to finish the product Oram set out to create, to answer my PhD question? What if the Mini Oramics would have released, and what reaction or use it would have been in back in the 60’s.

Question 2.

Esther: Are you entirely satisfied with the outcome of your Mini Oramics Projects you built?

Tom: I was happy it worked, it’s not perfect as it’s still a prototype. I’m slowly improving the machine. Making sure the electronics were able to read the pen markings wasn’t easy. I tried to keep most of the authenticity of the plan by using 70’s technology, I used early Logic gates because I wanted to prove that it would be possible to create in that time of era of Oram. The main challenges, were mainly mechanical. I was challenge trying to get the reel to reel film to go through, which had problems with the static electric electricity.  Discovering the technical issues after my Phd and working to solve the faults in the machine.

Question 3.

Esther: The aesthetic features on your Mini Oramics has very similar characteristics  to the original machine. What changes were applied to compress the large scale features to the Mini Oramic Version?

Tom: The original Oramics Machine ran 10 strips of synchronised 35mm film, which is expensive. According to a photographer that had worked with Oram, said that she couldn’t afford buying reels of blank film. Oram would bleach them, and start again with the same ones all the time. So there’s only few reels left on machine is all the film Oram ha left , as Oram had limited resources. Oram was given her funding in 1962, and was similar to the funding I was given in my PhD, if you translate the money then with money inflation. The Oramic Machine was problematic, there was always something wrong with the tuning, vibrato, mechanics and the dynamics. Oram was always fiddling with her machine. Theres 3 books of her technical log book in the archive.

Esther: (I show Tom Oram, Daphne’s book – An Individual Note of Music, Sound Electronics)

Tom: That much more of Oram’s finished thought for public consumption. There is 3 technical log books, they are more personal notes and there is technical diary of Oram’s progress. There was references I didn’t even touch on in my PhD, Oram at one point was trying to control the volume with a laser. This was just one reference I that I couldn’t find anything to substantiate it, it just said ’Laser in Volume Control.’

Esther: I documentary about Oram, Daphne when she was 7 years of age, that she saw sound as pattens and lines in her dream.

Tom: Oram spoke about growing up with her bother who were both technically inclined. The use to have HeathKits, were they would build their own synths. A 9 year old Oram had become fond using it and kept joining in with her brothers circuit builds. Oram grew up in a time where mostly males that worked in Electronics, but Oram’s family were liberal and didn’t discourage her interests in electric technology.

Question 4. 

Esther: Tape Variation had a major role in the early electronic sound houses. Magnetic Tape had been cut, slices and scratch to create, bizarre sounds and noise effects. Is Sampling the modern day tape variation?

-Oram, Daphne drawings on tape created pitch bending sounds, timbre and delay, composing a lyrical rhythm. What does graphical representation mean to you in the term of Sound Art?

Tom: The techniques of music concrete were very much about borrowing songs and changing them. Fiddling with them to make a new result, so sampling is kind of the same – there’s a lot of parallels between them. 

I started to making Computer music at 16, 17 and seemed logical to me, the way you draw out the midi patterns where you have a graphical representation of the piece on screen. It’s an intuitive approach, it goes back to the score or the barrel organ. Sound Art has such a broad field of representations, theres optical sound film artistes like Rhodes, Lis, Sherwin, Guy Sherwin and many more artist I could credit. ANS Synth, created by Scriabin, Alexander Nikolayevich, which has a vibrating light with spinning wheels. It a plasticine opaque cover, then you scratch away bits of plasticine to create drone like textual music and sounds.

Question 5.

 Esther: As well as an instrument maker, researcher, you compose music. Have you performed or incorporated you Mini Oramics in your music tracks.

Tom: I haven’t release anything, but I have a track coming with the Mini Oramics for live improvisation. Graphics have to drawn on, I can use pre-drawn film and slow it down for performances. I always use the synthesiser part of the machine with other sequencers that I make. I don’t use the graphic part as much. The Mini Oramics is split into two parts, one is the one you draw on, the other makes loads of control voltages and plug it into the Generator synth and turns it into Sound. I use the Generator a lot, with everything. I designed it, with a compatible plug in, on a standard CV Gate.

Question 6. 

Esther: What is you opinion on EDM and the comparison of the era that Oram produced electronic Music?

Tom: That’s a good question. With people like Oram, Daphne and Derbyshire, Delia they are known as the grandmothers of EDM music. There’s something tricky with the representation when thinking about focuses and goals. I would argue that both Oram and Derbyshire weren’t into making Pop music. Speaking for Oram she was making experimental and Avante-garde music, she wasn’t into making generic or populist songs. Derbyshire previous work had techno strands, very rhythmic beats.

Question 7.

Esther: Female sound engineers also likened to Oram, Derbyshire, Delia who created the famous ‘Doctor Who’ music theme were not credited well as their male peers. Do you think the Sound Arts and engineer industry jobs any more gender equal now?

Tom: BBC for political reasons wasn’t able for a few years to call the products of the Radiophonic Workshop music, because the Music department would get agitated. Stating that it wasn’t ‘Music.’ Oram at the workshop was classed as technicians at first, not musicians or composers. Oram expressed her frustrations to a letter with her Mum, when she credited as Radiophonic effects. 

I still don’t think we’ve achieved gender parity. I’m excited about the young females, sound engineers, musicians and producers that are doing great things. It’s changed in the last 10 years. I witnessed countless of times male engineers give female engineers a hard time because they think she doesn’t know what she’s doing, when it’s often the other way round.

Question 8.

Esther: How has creating the Mini Oramics Machine changed your opinion on Sound and Electroacoustic equipment?

-What is your connection towards your creation?

Tom: It’s had a big influence on my creative practice, especially the sound making part of it.     

It is better if someone can read it the Mini Oramics in the melodic scale or hear it your head sonically. I’m not classically changes, but it’s been lovely to lend it someone that read a musical score. I brushed up on my electronics, to redesign all the circuits – It was hard to make the machine without a micro processor. 

I use various amount of synth build I made to make music.

Question 9.

Esther: At the start of my winter term, I embarked on 6 week Modular Synth Build Workshop at University, which opened my eyes to the breadboards and circuit builds of the electronic interfaces. I built my Voltage Control Filter on a Serge Circuit board. 

How was it like to implant and solder all of the electric components to the correct circuit boards to develop your Mini Oramics and the Generator to accompany?

Tom: It was a bloody mission, it took month of work to create. In the whole system there’s about 20 odd circuit builds, there is a lot. Each parameter control board has 8 individual circuit boards, with 20 ICS and with other components, more then 10,000. It took some calibration and fiddling before it finished.

Question 10.

Esther: I read on your blog that you curate learning workshops for students, that are invited to demonstrate the Mini Oramics in action. Penning improvisational graphics onto your tape, which create this haunting harmonics.

What is you goal for these workshops and demonstrations?

Tom: My aim was that the Mini Oramics is helping the Oram, Daphine legacy, to help preserve her history. To show people that are interested in it, especially young woman and diverse range of people. I wanted to be true to Oram’s legacy, I hope she would have approved me designing her work. It’s interesting to see people react to the machine, how they perceive and what they do with it. It inspires to see what changes I can make to improve it.

Esther: I think that inspiring you can share your knowledge on doing a research project, it’s inspiring that you encourage students to make something that’s hand on, and creative. 

Tom: I enjoy working with students, and the interactive features which has a nice fluidity to it. What I made is something Oram planned to create, it is good to see that is was possible  to make. Oram wanted the Mini Oramics to be in music studio and universities, so it could have been a product supplied everywhere.

Esther: Thanks for this interview, it has been brilliant. Your Mini Oramics is a big achievement,  you should be proud of your design.

Tom: Thanks, Esther.


End of Interview.



Bāṛi- Installation at Gallery 46, Whitechapel for B.A Sound Art & Design:

In April, for our second year B.A Sound Arts & Design we had a Unit module. In this Unit, we could work independently or collaboratively. The Gallery 46 space in Whitechapel is located in the multi diverse area, with a large Bangladeshi Community in that Tower Hamlet, London.

I decided that I wanted to create a collective sound composition that entails, media, musicality and research interview in the Tower Hamlet. After planning my concept, I wanted to know more the history, and also more elaboration into my research. I was then enquired to research the history  in the Tower Hamlet area.


After gaining information about the community, I went to Brick Lane High St.

I went into restaurants, shop or tailors to try get a audio recording of the experience of coming over. This was a great chance to reflect and listen to the elderly generation of the community and on the area’s resilient nature of solidarity of overcoming prejudice treatment, racism experience whilst migrating majorly here in the early 70’s.

For the gallery space design, I designed a recreation of a 70’s living room, buying ornaments, cloth and food in the area of Whitechapel, Watney Market. The reason why I used majority of the props, was because I wanted keep the authenticity of the culture. I also wanted parts of the room to represent a part of the Bangladesh community

I also painted a watercolour feature to go in the space named ‘8 Waterlilies’ with each Waterlily representing the 8 divisions of Bangladesh. This took a lengthy two month to create, because of the colour use and blending technique.IMG_8027.JPG

The audio piece I composed was played out of British Tannoy speakers that fit the vintage look of the room. I really enjoyed this project as I’ve been interested in visiting installation and how interactive they can be- depending on the media or sound process.IMG_8987

Bāṛi (Home) 2019, displayed on the 26-29th April 2019.

Marguerite Humeau – Echoes:

file0002.pdf – Quick pencil sketch I drew in Tate Britain of ‘Echoes.’


On a recent visit to Tate Britain, Marguerite Humeau’s ‘Echoes’ sound installation was an eye catching design of the museum. At the entrance of this display, the acid yellow walls intensifies your vision – as an manipulating, firm voice speaks phrases in nine languages that range from Arabic, Median and Persian. As it’s playing in the background, you are surrounded with amplified levels of obscurity.

Humeau explains in the interview for Tate Modern YouTube video that her installation is a ‘Eco system of clean structures and sound installation.’ The female voice she used is  in a form of Eyption ruler Cleopatra. The voice is delivered in a snake hissing manner, knowing Humeau’s idea of black mamba python venom was a take on the reptile’s natural poisonous weapon. The installation has a levitating, psychological purpose and definitely invokes your inner thoughts.

The sounds Humeau uses in her piece is really effective through the tannoy, the tanks on the floor dripping water when the voice disappears. Tubes are linked onto the sculptures, flowing through  Hippopotamus milk and alligator blood. These ‘Super Fluids’ have been researched to contain antibacterial and anti-virus qualities. The sculptures inspired Humeau from her research from ancient Egyptians, mythical goddesses and sacred animals, with their known infatuation of death. I think that this piece has a rich, meaningful stigma about it, it is a fine installation with great depth to it.





Chiamonwu Joy – Hyper-realistic Art.


Nigerian Hyper realistic artist Chiamonwu Joy’s charcoal drawings blew me away! The intricate detail in her work is really spectacular. It takes months for Joy to craft this high standard of work, even viewers of her work have compared it to a black and white photograph. At just 22 years old, Joy’s work is beyond her years, pursuing art when she had no art teachers in her school.  It’s so exciting to see African art is starting to be shared more globally across the world, as it rarely shown in the media as often.

Joy’s work is really inspiring, I brought a charcoal pencil and started sketching again. Charcoal pencils allow you to create tiny markings compared to the chunky heads of the other charcoals. Hopefully with a bit more practice, my control of using charcoal pencils may improve. Yes indeed, Joy’s work definitely will encourage everyone to start drawing again.


Telephone Contact Microphone recording:


Telephone Contact Microphone pick up electronic frequencies from electrical objects. I used a Zoom 4 recorder to capture the audio. I hovered the contact microphone over laptops, mobile appliances and got static interactions that came through clearly through my headphones. I’m going to be studying more about contact microphone, and learn how to gather greater sounds from electrical appliances.


Contact Microphone making;


In the second term, we had a chance to make our own contact microphone to record audio with. This was my first attempt, so I was expecting it to be quite delicate and maybe a temporary recording device, compared to the telephone contact mics that are built more stronger.

It was a frustrating process at first, as I’ve never used soldering iron before. Stripping the cable wires at both ends with wire strippers and silvering the open, naked wires so it can be attached correctly to the buzzer element (Centre, side).

Separating the female mono jack, taken it apart to silver the inside of the jack was challenging task to do also. I soldered the open wires following the right procedures, whilst using heat strings to protect the little wires connecting to the cables with silvering. The finished element working perfectly on a amp equalizer, which I can now record with straight away. There are steps to making your own, which you can access easily online, but here is one I made earlier. Blue Peter style. 😉

Judy Dench – My Passion For Trees.


Judy Dench’s BBC programme was truly a fascinating watch last Christmas. Judy has a 6 acre garden filled with small variety of tall trees, which she nurtures fondly. As she delves into this beautiful, mysterious journey to learn more about the qualities these organisms hold. Judy’s knowledge is widened with the help from Wildlife expert David Mills, who shows her and fellow viewers a scientific insight to the environmental benefits trees have to our planet.

I was baffled to find out that fungi in trees was not only a prime reserve of minerals but a communication system to other trees, for example. In a forest full of trees the are bonds of veins between the trees, sharing water and nutrients. Judy’s intervals of Shakespeare sonnets shows a endearing display of love and passion, which was enchanting touch to the magical process. Alex Metcalf who is the designer of the ‘Tree Listening Device’ lets Judy listen through headphones to the water and air moving up the Xylem tubes from this sensitive microphone device.

This programme was a super interesting and it make me feel more empowered and protective of nature’s natural gifts. 🙂






Recording in Stockwood Park. 05.11.17.

First recording with microphone and audio recording:


I’ve been to this park throughout my childhood as it’s just around the corner from my house. I never recorded the sounds and activity of the place before, even though I’ve attended concerts and family picnics there. For my Uni assignment called ‘Sense Of Place’, I hired out a Zoom 4 audio recorder and Sennheiser shotgun microphone from the kit room at my uni. The Park has different areas for example. A Museum, Golf Area and Horse Stables, where young people can learn to be a future equestrian.

I wanted to capture the walk into the park, so I recorded a close recording of me walking through the autumn leaves, the mic was a super-cardiod mic which came out very amplified. Then I visited the horse stables, positioning behind a gate. A beautiful, strong horse who was standing in his stable, the horse was happily trotting up and down. Whilst I was faintly recording, it galloped to the the other side then shot back to my gate. The sounds recorded on the Sennheiser was quite heavy footed and earthy, but if I was there for longer I could have captivated more vivid sounds. The open family museum has some interesting displays of history and recreations showing of what life used to be without the facilities and technology we luckily have now.  The two voices from the displays where coming from both sides of the room. The microphone being very sensitive, picked up the main voice in the tunnel direction my mic was pointing. Also picking up the other voice in the background. When I played it back on the Zoom recorder, it translated into a overlapped echo.

My walk in the park was long one and I wanted to get the sounds of the little lake that is placed at the far end the park. The mic was stationed near the bed of the lake, I recording  a caption of me throwing stones into the pond, with the drops of the stones rippling on the water. I really like the peace and tranquility I got from recording the surrounding of the park and it’s magical settings.